These posts are taken from the newsletter of the LWV of Upper Mississippi River Region. We think our community will be interested in these informative articles and videos. Please follow the links for the full stories!

Climate Change – What does it mean for Iowa?

Dr. Erv Klaas told us about the impact of climate change on Iowa, especially focusing on the extreme rainfall and flooding that is occurring now.  In this talk, Dr. Klaas links warmer waters in the Gulf of Mexico with increased humidity and in turn more rainfall. 

Click here for video!

Soil health, climate change and adaptation

Dr. Jean Eells

Soil Health Explained

Dr. Jean Eells met with the LWV UMRR Board and guests, sharing her expansive knowledge of adult learning styles as she talked about soil health. Dr. Eells discussed the different ways that women and men  respond to information, and how best to reach women with soil health messaging.  

Click here for the post, including video.

Climate Adaptation – Threat and Opportunity

In this guest post, Matt Doll from the Minnesota Environmental Partnership looks at opportunities that exist for farmers in this time of changing climate.  One big idea who’s time may be coming is Kernza, a perennial variety of wheat.  

Link to full article

 

Forgotten Foremothers

Profiles of lesser-known heroines in the fight for women’s rights

By Kathryn S. Gardiner


Victoria Earle Matthews

A woman freed from slavery by the 13th Amendment authored works on the arduous internal struggles of life, including forgiving oppressors, while she actively worked to improve the lives of women of color in the post-war era.


“The quick, vengeful flame leaped in her eyes, as her mind, made keen by years of secret suffering and toil, traveled through time and space; she saw wrongs which no tongue can enumerate; demoniac gleams of exultation and bitter hatred settled up her now grim features; a pitiless smile wreathed her set lips, as she gazed with glaring eyeballs at the helpless, hopeless ‘victim of the great fire,’ as though surrounded by demons; a dozen wicked impulses rushed through her mind—a life for a life—no mortal eye was near…”

 

Though Aunt Lindy is Victoria’s only short story still easily available to the public, records of her other writings reveal multiple tales of forgiveness.

 

As a writer, Victoria Earle Matthews told the story of Aunt Lindy, a woman—once enslaved, but now free—who finds herself alone with her former master. The man is gravely injured in a fire and entirely at Lindy’s mercy. And mercy it indeed becomes as Victoria’ protagonist fights against the “vengeful flame” and instead heals the man. She is rewarded for this by the man’s changed soul and the return of one of the sons who had been stolen from her by that same slave owner.

 

Though Aunt Lindy is Victoria’s only short story still easily available to the public, records of her other writings reveal multiple tales of forgiveness. “Matthews’s career,” reads the Oxford Reference, “was driven by a belief in converting her people’s internal devastations into brilliant external accomplishments.” It would be a story Victoria would play out in her own life, and one she had to begin the day she was born in slavery in Fort Valley, Ga., on May 27, 1861. Her mother was an enslaved woman named Caroline Smith and her father was likely the man who claimed them both as property.

 

The homeowner caught Victoria reading and fortunately did not condemn the practice.

 

While Victoria (born Ella Victoria Smith) was still young, mother Caroline fled Georgia for New York at the start of the Civil War, leaving Victoria and an older sister behind. However, she returned in 1869 and mother and daughters reunited. Now emancipated, all three relocated to New York City.

 

For a brief time in this new city, Victoria attended public school, but the small family’s financial pressures soon forced her to drop out and gain work as a domestic servant. The home in which Victoria worked had an expansive library. The homeowner caught Victoria reading and fortunately did not condemn the practice. Victoria was granted permission to read after her work was done. Victoria, of course, began to work much faster to make time for reading.

 

“When home has been devastated, hearts only may feel and know the extent of the void; no pen or phrase can estimate it,” wrote Victoria…

 

At age 18, Victoria married William E. Matthews, a coachman, and the two had a son they named Lamartine. As a young wife and mother, Victoria started working to establish herself as a journalist and writer. Those ambitions blended well with her greater interest in politics and she turned her focus to the struggle of African Americans following the Civil War. In 1892, she co-organized a testimonial dinner for Ida B. Wells and her anti-lynching campaign. These events lead to the creation of the Woman’s Loyal Union of New York and Brooklyn. Victoria would serve as the first president of the WLU, a civil rights organization.

 

In September of 1895, Victoria would be challenged once again by the pain life can bring when son Lamartine died around the age of 16. “When home has been devastated, hearts only may feel and know the extent of the void; no pen or phrase can estimate it,” wrote Victoria in Aunt Lindy. With this tragedy still fresh, she turned her energies to helping young people Lamartine’s age, including a brief return to the South where she looked into what educational opportunities were provided to black citizens and immigrants. Soon enough, though, a minister persuaded her to return to those in need in New York.

…she noted the specific issues plaguing the cities African Americans, namely “limited economic opportunities, inadequate housing, poverty, prejudice, and racially motivated violence,”

Victoria spent her time as a leader and an organizer, but never lost sight of the day-to-day practical challenges of life. In neighborhoods where need seemed the greatest, she would go house to house, offering whatever help she could, from laundry to making family meals for overworked mothers. In this intensive work, she noted the specific issues plaguing the cities African Americans, namely “limited economic opportunities, inadequate housing, poverty, prejudice, and racially motivated violence,” she said.

 

Victoria’s own relationship with racial prejudice was a curious one. As a woman of mixed race, her features favored her white ancestry. This fair-skinned appearance, as well as her education, allowed her to move through circles of society often locked to her peers with darker skin regardless of their background or education. Victoria, however, consistently aligned with African Americans of every community and took great pride in her race. At the time, she was best known for her speeches “The Value of Race Literature” and “The Role of Afro-American Women,” both of which were rooted in her racial pride and sense of self-worth.

…when Victoria observed that new arrivals to the city, especially women, were often victimized at the train station, she arranged for volunteers to meet new people and escort them to safe housing.)

Victoria Earle Matthews

“and the memory of their oppressors awoke but to the call of fitful retrospection.”

As Jim Crow laws tightened in the South, more and more black men and women moved North looking for work and opportunity. In this Great Migration, Victoria spied a need within all the need—namely that of the young women who lacked safe places to stay and job skills. She soon provided those in the form of an apartment house, afforded with the help with Winthrop Phelps, a white philanthropist. The White Rose Industrial Home for Working Class Negro Girls opened on Feb. 11, 1897, providing young black women a home and training in domestic work. (Revealing her eye for detail, when Victoria observed that new arrivals to the city, especially women, were often victimized at the train station, she arranged for volunteers to meet new people and escort them to safe housing.)

 

“…in the busy life that freedom gave them, oft, when work was done and the night of life threw its waning shadows around them, their tears would fall for the scattered voices—they would mourn o’er their past oppression,” Victoria wrote in Aunt Lindy. “Yet they hid their grief from an unsympathizing generation, and the memory of their oppressors awoke but to the call of fitful retrospection.”

 

Victoria died at only age 45 in New York City on March 10, 1907, but what she’d begun would have no end. The White Rose Industrial Home, also known as the White Rose Mission, became the blueprint for similar organizations such as the YMCA and other programs still in operation to this day.

 

Waelz Sustainable Products blocked from Polluting Muncie

City Council Institutes Environmental Impact Committee

American Electric Power Agrees to Implement Pollution Control

The Muncie–Delaware County community has two important reasons to celebrate this summer: first, the reversal of a decision that would have damaged public health and well-being, and second, the institution of a governmental safeguard that will help prevent similar threats in the future.

Waelz Sustainable Products (WSP)

Muncie is Safe-r

Waelz Sustainable Products (WSP) sought and received City support for a facility installation at the site of the former Borg-Warner plant. While the project was presented as a positive development for Muncie, as a recycling project that would provide jobs, it would have also led to the release of hazardous environmental pollutants, contaminating the region with lead, mercury, dioxin, and dangerous particulates.

Over 600 local residents turned out to protest the project at the Muncie City Council meeting on August 5th. Also, citizens organized and attended meetings on the issue, signed petitions, wrote letters to the editor, and contacted local and state legislators. In response to overwhelming community opposition, WSP’s plans to install the factory were withdrawn—a big win for area residents, whose lives will be healthier as a result.

But the win didn’t end there. Because residents demonstrated not only that the community is strongly engaged in issues of public health and environmental, but also that elected officials will be held accountable to their constituents for the decisions they make on our behalf, the City Council has instituted an environmental impact committee. This committee will be responsible for reviewing new proposed projects that might negatively affect air, soil, and water quality in the area. Its members are required to seek advice from professionals before making decisions that would affect environmental conditions.

Not only did Muncie and Delaware County citizens successfully overturn a decision that would have compromised our overall health and well-being for years to come, but we also demonstrated that “we, the people” do indeed have a powerful voice—that when we insist on being heard, we can help direct community development in ways that enhance our quality of life rather than jeopardize it.

For more information, follow these links to coverage by the StarPress:

comprehensive collection of links

environmental committee creation

A planned steel-dust recycling facility in Muncie would look similar to this one. (Photo: Waelz Sustainable Products)

AEP Commits to Retire Largest Coal Unit

More good news on the environmental front: American Electric Power Corporation has signed a legal agreement to implement increased pollution controls that will reduce sulfur dioxide emissions from its two Rockport power plants in Spencer, Indiana, by at least 58%. Furthermore, one of the two units is scheduled for complete retirement by December 31, 2028, which is expected to prevent the ejection of 9 million metric tons of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere—the equivalent of removing 2 million cars from the road. In addition, the company will provide $3.5 million to fund projects aimed at improving energy efficiency and pollution reduction.

For more information, see the Sierra Club article at https://www.sierraclub.org/press-releases/2019/07/american-electric-power-commits-retire-largest-coal-unit-beyond-coal-campaign.

The Ball State University Vietnam Moratorium Committee is presenting “Reunite, Remember, Rekindle,”
its 50th Anniversary Reunion and Conference, and the Public is Invited!

The events will honor the history of student activism at
Ball State during the Vietnam era, but just as importantly,
they are aimed at connecting with activists in current student movements.

Ball State University

Vietnam Moratorium Committee


50th Anniversary Reunion and Conference

The Reunion Mixer and Dinner

 will be held
at BSU’s Alumni Center Assembly Hall 
on Thursday, October 10
from 6:00-10:30 pm.

The $40 fee includes choice of entreé
and a commemorativet-shirt,
with paid registration due by October 1.

For Tickets

The all-day Conference

 on Friday, October 11,
from 9:00 am–5:30 pm
at Pittenger Student Center’s Cardinal Hall, 
is free of charge and open to the public.

 

The Conference will present a full day of panels and speakers.

David Harris
will present the keynote address at 11:30 am

He is  a veteran anti-war activist, journalist, author of 11 books, and continuing peace advocate.

For More Information

 

Voter Services September 2019

Voter Service has been busy this past month.  We have registered voters at the Moms Demand Action anti-gun violence rally, the Second Harvest Food Bank, the Ride for the Mounds, and the Old Washington Street Festival. At the Old Washington Street Festival we had people tell us they were specifically looking for our booth so they could register the new voters in their families or ask questions about voting laws.   The community knows us for our good work!

We have also been working on setting up community forums so the candidates in the November election for local offices can answer questions from the citizens of Muncie.  We are sponsoring a City Council Candidate Forum, and are helping the NAACP with a Mayoral Forum.  Both will be live broadcast on WLBC, and a rebroadcast will be available online after the Forums are over.  We hope to see you all at both of these events!

 

 

Mayoral Candidate Forum  

The NAACP is sponsoring a debate on

October 10    

7:00 pm         

Church of the Living God

City Council Candidate Forum

October 17    

7:00 pm         

Northside Middle School

 

 

 

Forgotten Foremothers

Profiles of lesser-known heroines in the fight for women’s rights

By Kathryn S. Gardiner

“If this is a Great Society, I’d hate to see a bad one.”

Fannie Lou Hamer

In 1962 – August 31 to be precise – Fannie Lou Hamer, at the age of 45, traveled with other activists to Indianola, Miss., determined to register to vote. Upon arriving, Hamer and the other black women and men were quizzed on the facts of de facto law. “I knowed as much about a facto law as a horse knows about Christmas Day,” Hamer said. When they couldn’t answer the questions, the would-be voters were turned away.

“I didn’t try to register for you,” Hamer told the man. “I tried to register for myself.” 

Hamer returned to her plantation home in Mound Bayou. There, she found her “boss man raisin’ Cain,” she recalled, and he demanded she withdraw her registration because “we’re not ready for that in Mississippi.”

It had been true of Fannie Lou Hamer all her life and would be true until the end of it: She wouldn’t back down when she knew she was right.

“I didn’t try to register for you,” Hamer told the man. “I tried to register for myself.” For this, Hamer was fired and kicked off the plantation. Her husband, Perry, could not go with her as he was required to stay until the harvest’s end.

The words of Hamer’s former boss proved true as, for the next several months, Hamer was repeatedly harassed and threatened by white Mississippians. She moved from home to home, rarely staying in one place long for safety. In the worst incident, in September, white supremacists shot at the home where she was staying with a friend. The next day, Hamer and her family—Perry and their two adopted daughters—moved to Tallahatchie County in the hopes that the Ku Klux Klan threats would not follow them.

The only thing they could do was kill me, and it kinda seemed like they’d been trying to do that a little bit at a time since I could remember.”

On December 4, Hamer returned to Indianaola to register to vote. She once again failed the arbitrary test given her by the white staff and was turned away. “You’ll see me every 30 days until I pass,” she told the registrar.  

“I guess if I had any sense, I’d have been a little scared,” she said later, “but what was the point of being scared? The only thing they could do was kill me, and it kinda seemed like they’d been trying to do that a little bit at a time since I could remember.”

Fannie Lou had been born Oct. 6, 1917 in Montgomery County, Miss., to Ella and James Lee Townsend. She was the youngest of 20 children and the Townsends enjoyed some comfort before their livestock was poisoned, most likely by a local white supremacist. “We knowed this white man had done it,” Hamer recalled. “That white man did it just because we were gettin’ somewhere. White people never like to see Negroes get a little success. All of this stuff is no secret in the state of Mississippi.”

After this setback, the Townsends relocated to Sunflower County and got work as sharecroppers on a plantation. By age six, Hamer was out in the fields picking cotton with her family. Despite a disfigured leg from a bout of polio, she had to pick as much as 300 pounds of cotton daily by age 13. During the winters, Hamer and the other plantation children attended a one-room school where she found a love of reading and demonstrated a keen mind for spelling bees and poetry. Unfortunately, she had to leave school at age 12 to help care for her aging parents, but she continued what studies she could through Bible school. Her knowledge and ability to interpret scripture would be a powerful aspect of her activism in her adulthood.

Hamer became involved in civil rights in the 1950s after hearing speakers from both the Regional Council of Negro Leadership and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. It was from this latter group that Hamer first learned of the constitutional right to vote.

On January 10, 1963, Hamer returned to Indianaola. This time she passed the “literacy test” and was officially a registered voter in the state of Mississippi. However, when she went to vote that fall, she was stymied yet again. She was now informed that the county required voters to have two poll tax receipts to be eligible to vote. This law emerged in the United States in 1870 after the 15th Amendment granted all men the right to vote, regardless of race. It was used almost exclusively to prohibit black and Native American voters from exercising that right.

“If I am truly free, who can tell me how much freedom I can have today?” Hamer asked once.

“Sometimes it seem like to tell the truth today is to run the risk of being killed,” she said. “But if I fall, I’ll fall five feet four inches forward in the fight for freedom. I’m not backing off.”

After her own experiences, Hamer began working more closely with the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. She focused her energies on informing and enfranchising black voters, especially those in impoverished areas. Though she eventually acquired her two poll tax receipts and was able to cast her vote, she ran into those familiar roadblocks again and again in trying to help others. Occasionally she and her fellow activists experienced much worse.

During 1963, Hamer and members of the SNCC traveled from one conference to another by bus. They stopped at a local café in Winona, Miss., for food and a bathroom. First, the waitress refused to serve them. Then, a highway patrolman threatened them with his billy club. When one of the travelers exited the cafe to write down the patrolman’s license plate number, a police chief arrived and arrested them. Hamer had been on the bus during these events. She stepped off the bus to inquire after her fellows and a bystander cried for her to be arrested as well. While in police custody, Hamer and the others were subjected to intense violence and sexual assault. More than one individual was brutally beaten for not addressing an officer as “sir.”

When she was finally released, it took a full month for Hamer to recover, though some injuries would plague her for the rest of her life. Beyond the psychological damage and emotional strain, she also suffered permanent damage to her kidneys and a blood clot over one eye. But as soon as her health allowed, she returned to her county seat in Mississippi to organize voter registration drives. “Sometimes it seem like to tell the truth today is to run the risk of being killed,” she said. “But if I fall, I’ll fall five feet four inches forward in the fight for freedom. I’m not backing off.”

It is difficult to imagine that these experiences, including the violence she received at the hands of police in Winona, did not rob years from her life—and thereby rob the world, and her loved ones, of her.

She didn’t. The timeline of her life reveals a truly impressive list of activist causes, all with equality at their core, from advocating for black sharecroppers and voter rights, to land and home ownership. She co-founded (with Shirley Chisholm, Gloria Steinem, and others) the National Women’s Political Caucus in 1971, believing in the power that women could have as a voting majority. “A white mother is no different from a black mother,” she said. “The only thing is they haven’t had as many problems. But we cry the same tears.”

Hamer died on March 14, 1977 at age 59. Over 15 years earlier, at age 44, before her battle for her voting rights began, Hamer had surgery to remove a tumor. During this procedure, the white doctor also gave her a hysterectomy without her consent. This was relatively common at the time due to Mississippi’s compulsory sterilization plan to reduce the number of black children born in the state. (It’s believed Hamer coined the euphemism “Mississippi appendectomy” for this practice.) Hamer’s daughters were both adopted and well-loved. One died, however, of internal hemorrhaging. The local hospital refused to help the girl because of her mother’s activism. The early years of the 1970s saw her hospitalized with nervous exhaustion and she was in very poor health from 1974 until her death three years later.

“…it kinda seemed like they’d been trying to [kill me] a little bit at a time since I could remember,” Hamer had said. It is difficult to imagine that these experiences, including the violence she received at the hands of police in Winona, did not rob years from her life—and thereby rob the world, and her loved ones, of her.

Her memorial service was standing room only, so an additional overflow service was held at a local high school. Over 1,500 people attended. Andrew Young, the United States Ambassador to the United Nations, spoke at the service. “None of us would be where we are now had she not been there then,” he said.

Her gravestone bears what is likely her most famous quote: “I am sick and tired of being sick and tired.”

This article will end with another
of her most famous quotes:

“It is time for America to get right.”

“I am sick and tired of being sick and tired.”

Congratulations Indiana Leaguers!

Thanks to your work and support, the National Voter Registration Act will not be violated in Indiana.

TO ALL LEAGUERS AND FRIENDS, 

Appeals Court Upholds Freeze on Indiana Law that Would Cancel Voter Registrations Without Telling Voters  

MEDIA CONTACT: Derek Rosenfeld, derek.rosenfeld@nyu.edu, 646-292-8381

A federal appeals court in Chicago today upheld a trial court ruling temporarily preventing the state of Indiana from implementing a 2017 law that could recklessly knock eligible voters off registration lists. The 2017 law directs election officials to cancel the registrations of voters identified by the flawed Interstate Voter Registration Crosscheck system as having registered in another state – without providing notice and a waiting period, as mandated by federal law.

On behalf of the League of Women Voters of Indiana and the Indiana State Conference of the NAACP, Brennan Center lawyers, with co-counsel from Quinn Emanuel and the McCain Law Offices, sued Indiana’s elections officials because Indiana’s new purge law violates the National Voter Registration Act, or NVRA. The NVRA sets clear procedures that officials must follow before removing a voter from the rolls who is believed to have moved. Last year, a trial court preliminarily halted implementation of Indiana’s purge law while the case is being considered. Today’s appellate ruling upheld that decision.

“The NVRA imposes a duty of notice and a waiting period to ensure that eligible voters are not improperly removed from the rolls,” said Myrna Pérez, Director of the Brennan Center’s Voting Rights & Elections Program. “The state of Indiana cannot ignore those indisputable requirements of federal law.”

“The Seventh Circuit is rightfully worried that Indiana sought to rely exclusively on Crosscheck data to silence Hoosiers on Election Day,” said Barbara Bolling-Williams, President of the Indiana State Conference of the NAACP. “It is vital that Indiana follow federal law and ensure that voters are not wrongfully removed from the rolls.”

“The League of Women Voters of Indiana supports responsible voter list maintenance,” said Patsy Hoyer and Oscar Anderson, Co-Presidents of the League of Women Voters of Indiana. “As today’s decision suggests, Indiana’s Crosscheck purge law does not accomplish that goal.”

The Crosscheck program—which compares voter registration data across participating states and can find a match based on first name, last name, and date of birth alone—has resulted in wrongful removals when used elsewhere. The use of Crosscheck was expanded under former Kansas Secretary of State Kris Kobach, who served as vice chairman of President Trump’s controversial and now dissolved voter fraud commission. But Crosscheck is so unreliable that eleven states have left the program in recent years.Indiana’s 2017 purge law comes as part of a wave of similar laws nationwide that the Brennan Center has worked to stop. Last summer, the Brennan Center released Purges: A Growing Threat to the Right to Vote, a report examining the growing threat of states using bad practices to clean up their voter registration lists and outlining the steps each state can take to protect voters.

Source URL: https://www.brennancenter.org/press-release/appeals-court-upholds-freeze-indiana-law-would-cancel-voter-registrations-without 

 
 
Copyright © 2019 League of Women Voters of Indiana, All rights reserved.

Waelz Zinc Processing Facility to Replace Borg-Warner

Muncie City Council tonight voted to assign study of the Waelz Zinc Processing facility to a committee that will invite testimony from scientists and citizens. 

The committee will then recommend a revised ordinance or rescind the original ordinance. 
They will hold a public hearing—date TBA.   

 

Put this on your calendar too!

 Waelz Zinc Processing facility public meeting

Tuesday, August 20

—see notice below-

July 31, 2019 Contact: Ali Alavi - 317-334-7067 WSP understands the concerns being expressed by the Muncie community regarding the proposed new zinc production facility. We want to emphatically reiterate our commitment to the protection of human health and the environment with respect to our planned operation - a core value of the two partners in WSP - and continuing to communicate and engage with our neighbors. We are targeting Tuesday August 20, 2019, for our next meeting with the community during which additional details regarding the project can be presented in a setting more conducive to personal interaction with members of the community. The more intimate setting will allow WSP representatives the opportunity to answer questions, address concerns and provide facts and accurate information we are confident will prove reassuring to its neighbors. We are keenly aware of the specific questions circulating in the community regarding mercury emissions and want to be lear that the facility will operate in compliance with environmental laws and in accordance with air regulations and its final air permit, all of which ensures an operation that protects human health and the envirnment. IDEM will not issue a final air permit without ensuring the safety and health of area residents. We support Representative Errington and Senator Lananes idea of IDEM holding a public hearing when the draft air permit is issued and continuing to carry out its mission of acting in the best interests of the citizens of Indiana.

Muncie City Council Meeting Aug 5, 2019

Various photographers

Girl holds sign with concerns over possible pollution from Zinc Oxide plant
Man wears high quality dust protection mask and protective plastic suit
Boy holds sign that reads “Don’t poison the air. We like it here.”
Man holds sign questioning Muncie allowing Toxic Steel Dust in our community
Boy and man hold signs outside Muncie City Council meeting in protest of Waelz factory
Overflow crowd waiting outside The Muncie City building at Aug 5, 2019 City Council meeting
Rally at Muncie City Council on August 5, 2019

Democracy is not a spectator sport

Videos of the City Council meeting on Aug 5, 2019, coverage of the upcoming meeting on Channel 6, and a video of children chanting “Please don’t poison us!”

Video of The Muncie City Council meeting

Video: After Council President left the building

Channel 6 was covering the rally but missed the fireworks at the end of the meeting.

The Indy Channel

 

Photos from Josh Arthur’s post in Change of Plans Click picture to visit the event on Facebook
  • regulation of pollution sources by control and penalties;

  • inspection and monitoring;

  • full disclosure of pollution data;

  • incentives to accelerate pollution control;

GUN SAFETY

Responding to the latest in a long series of bloodletting that the American people across the country have endured, Chris Carson, President of the League of Women Voters of the United States, stated:

 

I think we all must acknowledge our anger and frustration that this kind of slaughter can continue under the guise of ‘constitutional rights’. But getting past that entirely justifiable outrage, we need to continue to work for legislation that promotes gun safety.

However – we all need to acknowledge that this is really about Voting Rights. Unless all American citizens can vote, we are not going to get past this. Until barriers to voting are eliminated – Voter ID, restrictive registration requirements, gerrymandering – are eliminated, we can’t pass legislation that will make a difference. It all comes back to the vote.

~ Chris Carson, President of the League of Women Voters of the United States